Monday, March 9, 2020

Depression Rates Have Been Growing Cont Essay

Depression Rates Have Been Growing Cont Essay Depression Rates Have Been Growing Cont Essay Depression rates have been growing continuously every year. More and more are affected by this disease, and people are finding it increasingly difficult to cope with certain conditions of life times. The question that many wonder is, what has caused depression to become so common? Theories vary between Psychologists, Neurobiologists and evolutionary biologist. A depressive disorder is an illness that influences the body, thoughts and mood. It affects how people eat, sleep, feel about themselves and how they think about things. The symptoms of depression vary from case to case. Symptoms include feelings of hopelessness, pessimism, guilt, decreased energy, fatigue, loss of appetite or over eating, thoughts of death or suicide ,etc. Those who are depressed lose interest in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed. An episode of depression associated with a loss of loved ones may differ than depression from a loss of resources. Sub-optimal conditions may play a role in the onset of depression and they may manipulate instant clinical manifestations in their course. Some traits may not be influenced during increasing severity. Even though some qualities are thought to be adaptive, they may in fact increase the chances of depression. Evolutionary systems that compete for recognition may explain much of the clinical "noise" of depression that is overlooked. Depending upon the number and severity of the symptoms, a depressive episode may be specified as Mild, Moderate or Severe. A Mild depressive episode is when a person has two or three of the above symptoms are usually present. The person is usually distressed by these, but will probably to be able to continue with most activities. The Moderate depressive episode is when a person has four or more of the above symptoms are usually present and the person is likely to have great difficulty in continuing with ordinary activities. The Severe depressive episode is an episode in which several of the above the symptoms are marked and distressing, typically loss of self-esteem and ideas of worthlessness or guilt. Suicidal thoughts and acts are common. 1 Depression statistics that are available from past to current years do not correctly indicate real or actual numbers in the total population. This is because of misdiagnosis, which occurs between 30 and 50 percent of the time and because only half of all depression cases are actually documented. Available statistics are based on those cases in which patients seek care and/or are discovered to have the illness through surveys and studies. In 1998 depressive disorders concerned an estimated 9.5 percent of American adults ages eighteen and over, approximately 18.8 million people. In 2000, it was found that nearly twice as many women 12%, as men, 7%, have a depressive disorder each year. Ten percent of Americans suffer from clinical depression. Twelve million women in the United States experience an episode of depression every year. Overall, one in every eight women develops depression at one time in their life. Depression is also becoming more common in adolescents and children. As many as 1 in every 33 children experience this invisible disease. Teenage girls are more likely to acquire depression than teenage boys. one in eight adolescents may have depression. Major depression is found to be most common in the mid to late twenties. Neurobiologists and psychologists argue whether ego-detrimental experiences and self- depreciating thoughts or biological, and chemical processes are the causes of depression. Genetic researchers have put forth great effort in the past twenty years trying to recognize the genes that are linked to depression. So far, these genes have escaped discovery. This may be due to the fact

Saturday, February 22, 2020

The Jobs Crisis in Easter Europe and Central Asia (2007-2011) and The Assignment

The Jobs Crisis in Easter Europe and Central Asia (2007-2011) and The Informal Labour Market in the Czech Republic(2012) - Assignment Example the recession, can be felt through four transmission channels, namely the financial markets, product markets, labour markets and government services. This report of World Bank particularly focuses on labour markets and the government services. The findings of the report clearly point out that the factor which can be attributed for the major decline of household welfare is the loss of jobs in labour markets. This period had witnessed major job cuts in most of the industries (more in construction and manufacturing), which had directly impacted the households. The youth unemployment had also reached record high in this period. The biggest disadvantage was, perhaps, long-term unemployment in the labor market. The workers, who could save their jobs, had also experienced a contraction in their real wages as most companies started to cut back on the paychecks. The households began to cope by reducing their expenditure and increasing their labour supply to earn more. The reduction in expenditure was felt most in sectors of healthcare and food. The governments in most of the countries were aware of the plight of people in the economy and the government launched social assistance programs to help the poor of the country. However, the results of these were not immediately felt because of the bottlenecks that had existed in various sectors during that period. Therefore, there were delays in response of the programs to improve the plight of the poor (Ajwad, n.d.). The report had applied the concept of GDP to measure the reduction in economic growth of the country and its consequent effect on the labour market. GDP measures the total income earned domestically, including the income earned by foreign factors of production, whereas GNP measures the income earned by all residents of the nation, including factors of production from abroad (Lochner, 2013). GDP was used as it captured the economic performance of the geographic region that is under study. If residents of the country

Thursday, February 6, 2020

DOES UK DISCRIMINATION LAW PREVENT DISCRIMINATION IN THE UK RESTAURANT Essay

DOES UK DISCRIMINATION LAW PREVENT DISCRIMINATION IN THE UK RESTAURANT INDUSTRY extra literature review - Essay Example The study found that discrimination in the workplace is a common risk factor for mental disorders and the authors offer the opinion that provision of job opportunities alone may not be adequate to address the problem. Rather, the health and well being of minority employees can be improved by improving working conditions, challenging discrimination and promoting strategies that support coping behavior. Institutional racism was found to be a factor even in the British Medical Association, where some of its members sued it, for a failure to provide legal support to its minority members.(Pincock, 2004). Institutional racism may in particular, be a factor in the restaurant industry, where general prevailing attitudes of prejudice and racial stereotyping may disadvantage minority people. Discrimination against women exists in almost all industries. Some researchers have found that stereotypes about women and their commitment to their jobs results in unfavorable policies towards them in recruitment and promotion. (Halford et al., 1997; Maddock, 1998; Reskin and Padavic, 1994). Another study found that senior managers are reluctant to employ female employees who are young and married because of the family commitments that are assumed to exist.(Carrier, 1995). Women are not only discriminated against in the workplace, they are also harassed more frequently. Harassment, in general terms, is unwanted conduct affecting the dignity of men and women in the workplace. As per Section 3 of the Race Relations Amendment Act 2000, a person would discriminate against another person if he/she applies a â€Å"provision, criterion or practice† which would put them at a particular disadvantage when compared with people of other races or ethnicities. This in effect would have the effect of violating the dignity of the other person or humiliating them on grounds of their race or ethnicity. The Sex Discrimination Act of

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Going to College Essay Example for Free

Going to College Essay Going to college really does open a new chapter in everyone life, the beginning of new friendships, opportunities and growth. As a college student, a new student will be introduced to new areas of interest, broaden his vision of possibilities, establish and accomplish goals, develop lifelong friendships and define him or her in ways that he can imagine. Anyone on Earth already asked, or will ask himself where he would be in 10, 20 or even 30 years down the road. It is hard enough imagining what his life is going to be like in a year or two. Questions like â€Å"Where do you want to be today, tomorrow and in the future?† might be hard ones for young teenagers, who just graduated from high school. Attending college will help anyone answer those questions, develop a realistic plan for accomplishing his goals, and equip him with the knowledge and skills he will needs to see his goals through to the end. We usually assume that a college degree is necessary when it is not actually. We can also noticed that, because we place so much emphasis on degrees, people who have not attended college think of themselves badly, and this lack of self-confidence can really impede their success. There are some people for whom the college is actually not the best way to learn. However, a college education is an opportunity for everyone to learn what he loves. A new student can actually take the time to enjoy learning what he is truly passionate about. If he is interested in a variety of things and he is not sure where to focus, he can take his time to try them all. Nobody should look at college as a long-term contract that he is not going to be able to get out of once he starts. Anyone should feel like he needs to decide on a major area of study before starting college. College is a time for everyone to test himself, explore his interests, see what the possibilities are, and to see what he can achieve. Most other students attending college are going to be in the exact same boat . There are also a variety of resources, provided by most universities, to help anyone through college, including academic advisors, professors accessible on campus, tutoring academic support, full-time counseling staff and more. While the prospect of attending college may seem a bit daunting and even suffocating, a graduated high school teenager should not forget that he will still get to live his life. He will be able to participate in a variety of extracurricular activities, social groups, maintain a job, or even pursue a career while completing his studies. He may even find that college ends up being much more enjoyable and fulfilling than he ever expected. There are additional reasons as to why it is important to go to college. When students experience a post-secondary education, they have the opportunity to read books and listen to the lectures of top experts in their fields. This stimulation encourages students to think, ask questions, and explore new ideas. So, â€Å"why should you go to college?† The reasoning does not begin and end with the job aspect. A good education is beneficial from many different viewpoints. If any teenager is still asking himself why he should go to college, it is important to remember the significant amount of opportunity available for college graduates. The global economy is becoming increasingly more competitive, and in order to give him the best chance for a well-paying job, he must first understand the importance of college education. Attending college provides students with the knowledge and experience they are unable to receive from a secondary education, and finding a way to fund a higher education now can pay off in a huge way in the years to come.

Monday, January 20, 2020

So You Want to Be an Astronaut :: NASA Space Astronauts Essays

So You Want to Be an Astronaut Part I: The Application There’s an application just to get an application. I had to fill out what NASA calls an application interest form, which is an information card much like the kind of card you fill out and send in for a magazine subscription. I got the card at the Johnson Space Center in Houston last summer. The space center is a sixteen-hundred-acre compound filled with lush grass and cream-colored buildings of different shapes and sizes. Satellite dishes bloom like flowers throughout the compound, and the only buildings open to the public are a museum, the rocket park, and mission control. After climbing through a mock-up of the space shuttle, pretending to be Sally Ride, I passed by an information kiosk and the application interest form caught my eye. I grabbed one and stuck it into my Space Center museum guide, forgetting about it until months later when I filled it out and mailed it in. Just a few weeks ago my application arrived. It’s a twenty-five page affair with a glittering blue and silver cover that has a picture of the space shuttle on it. I removed the cover and tacked it up on my bulletin board next to a postcard of Charles Lindbergh standing in front of The Spirit of St. Louis. Twenty-five pages. Becoming an astronaut is more difficult than applying to Harvard Medical School. More difficult than doing your taxes. Probably even more difficult than running for the senate. Now, I can’t be an astronaut because I have absolutely no interest in math, science, engineering, medicine, or astrophysics. I dabble in astronomy, but they don’t send you up in the space shuttle because you think it would be neat. However, it’s important to always have an impossible dream. It keeps you humble. This is my impossible dream. So, I read through the application. Why do you want to be an astronaut? I love the audaciousness of the space program. Here we are, little animals trying to jump off our planet. How have your past accomplishments or experiences prepared you to be an astronaut? When I visited the Johnson Space Center in Houston I tried on a space helmet. It fit. The boots were another story but I can wear many layers of socks.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Concepts of Family Nursing Theory

Nurses hold a unique position among health care professionals in terms of prolonged proximity to patients during a stay in hospital or while a person with a long-term health problem is being cared for at home. In contemporary context it is necessary to address the needs of the families whose lives may be irrevocably changed by the illness of one member. As Friedman (1992:29) put it: â€Å"The psychosocial strains on a family with a member suffering a chronic or life-threatening condition can rival the physical strains on the patient.† However, it is not only in relation to chronic illness and disability that families may stand in need of help. The family developmental life cycle involves natural transitions which may create considerable stress. One example might be a woman trying to deal with an adolescent son who is engaging in risk-taking with drugs and alcohol, to protect her younger son from his brother’s influence, to persuade her busy husband to give more attention to his family while providing some support for her mother who is caring for an increasingly frail husband. There is potential for conflict in all of these relationships as family members attempt to balance their own needs with those of other members of the family, and of the family as a unit. Such family tensions are likely to influence the health and well-being of each family member, and their ability to deal with unanticipated events such as accidents or unemployment. Wherever families are struggling to maintain or restore equilibrium, to find ways of coping effectively with crisis or with long-term stress, nurses may find themselves in a supportive role. Frude (1990) identifies that in the literature on families some authors focus upon individuals and regard other members as being the social context of the person. Other authors look at the family unit as a whole with individual members as parts of the whole. This distinction is pertinent to discussions on family nursing. Currently nurses and their colleagues see it as both legitimate and important to take into account the family context of their patients or clients. Much more discussion and collaboration takes place with relatives than in the past. Nurses in some specialties, for instance community nursing, pediatrics or psychiatric nursing, might argue that because of the nature of their work they have always been concerned with the family of the particular client or patient. From the contemporary perspective, it is useful to be aware of how family composition is changing in order to have a mind to the wider context of society as a whole. It is possible to be under the impression that the family today is in terminal decline if all that one reads in the popular press is to be believed. A closer look behind the headlines reveals that what is understood to be under threat is the traditional two biological parent household with dependent children, the nuclear family. It is increasingly apparent that a growing minority of children will experience life in a family that is headed by a lone parent, usually the mother, before they reach adulthood. A popular misconception is that the majority of these mothers are single women. Their numbers are growing faster than other groups, the figures for which seem to have established at the end of the 1990s, but divorced, separated and widowed mothers still constitute the majority. In addition, the divorce rate in remarried couples remains higher than for the general population. There are many factors involved in this but the additional stresses of a reconstituted family may make them more vulnerable to breakdown, for instance the parent-child bond predating the marital bond can lead to step-parents competing with their children for primacy with their spouse. Dimmock (1992) notes that too often the blended family is cast in the mould or ideal of the nuclear family. Indeed, many of those involved are keen to view it in that light. Remarried families can often be struggling with unresolved emotional issues at the same time as coping with family transitions. Dimmock (1992) also indicates that society offers the choice of two conceptual models, that of the nuclear family or the wicked step-parent (mostly stepmothers) of fairy tales. The family nursing model allows accommodation of a family with less rigid boundaries. A nurse, perhaps in the role of health visitor, with an understanding of family systems and family nursing could provide valuable support and help for these families to work through some of the issues involved. There is another group of families which is becoming more prominent, particularly in the United States. Lesbian and gay parenting is currently a topic of hot interest as our society struggles to decide whether it will move forward on human rights issues or attempt to retrench and move back into a mythical past of â€Å"family values.† Increasingly in the US this is an area of interest and debate, especially as reproductive technologies have advanced so that it is possible for the lesbian woman to contemplate pregnancy without a male partner. Gay men wishing to raise a family are also becoming a focus for media interest and debate in this country. The impact of AIDS and HIV infection has also highlighted issues concerning next of kin with gay men, particularly within the health service and in legal terms. This demonstrates the appropriateness of accepting the notion that, from a nursing perspective, the family is who the individual identifies, although it may not necessarily conform to biological or legal ways of thinking. From the personal viewpoint, the strongest argument for the appropriateness of family nursing in the United States now is the massive shift of care from hospitals and institutions to the community. Patients in hospital are more acutely ill, with resultant stress for families who need support. In the community families are in the first line of caring for individuals with intractable, often severe, health problems. At the same time, the purpose of nursing is to provide care for those with continuous needs in partnership with people and with other organizations. Therefore, I totally agree with the purpose of family nursing described by Hanson (1987:8) which is to promote, maintain, and restore family health. Moreover, family nursing is concerned with the interactions between the family and society and among the family and individual family members. References Dimmock, B. (1992) A child of our own, Health Visitor, 65, 10:368-370 Friedman, M.M. (1992) Family nursing: Theory and practice, 3rd edn, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange. Frude, N. (1990) Understanding family problems: A psychological approach, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Hanson, S.M.H. (1987) Family nursing and chronic illness, in Wright, L., Leahey, M. (1987) Families and chronic illness, Pennsylvania: Springhouse.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Why Is the Periodic Table Important

The periodic table has gone through many changes since Dmitri Mendeleev drew up his original table in 1869, yet both the first table and the modern periodic table are important for the same reason: The periodic table organizes elements according to similar properties so you can tell the characteristics of an element just by looking at its location on the table. Before all of the naturally occurring elements were discovered, the periodic table was used to predict the chemical and physical properties of elements in the gaps on the table. Today, the table can be used to predict properties of elements yet to be discovered, although these new elements are all highly radioactive and break down into more familiar elements almost instantly. The table is useful for modern students and scientists because it helps predict the types of chemical reactions that a particular element is likely to participate in. Rather than memorize facts and figures for each element, students and scientists need only glance at the table to learn much about the reactivity of an element, whether it is likely to conduct electricity, whether it is hard or soft, and many other characteristics. Elements in the same column as one other are known as groups and they share similar properties. For example, the elements in the first column (the alkali metals) are all metals that usually carry a 1 charge in reactions, react vigorously with water, and combine readily with nonmetals. Elements in the same row as one other are known as periods and they share the same highest unexcited electron energy level. Another useful feature of the periodic table is that most tables provide all the information you need to balance chemical reactions at a glance. The table tells each elements atomic number and usually its atomic weight. The usual charge on an element is indicated by an elements group. Trends or Periodicity The periodic table is organized according to trends in element properties. As you move from left to right across a row of elements, the atomic radius (the size of an elements atoms) decreases, ionization energy (the energy required to remove an electron from an atom) increases, electron affinity (the amount of energy released when an atom forms a negative ion) generally increases, and electronegativity (an atoms tendency to attract a pair of electrons) increases. As you move from top to bottom down a column of elements, the atomic radius increases, the ionization energy decreases, electron affinity usually decreases, and electronegativity decreases. Summary To summarize, the periodic table is important because it is organized to provide a great deal of information about elements and how they relate to one another in one easy-to-use reference. The table can be used to predict the properties of elements, even those that have not yet been discovered.Columns (groups) and rows (periods) indicate elements that share similar characteristics.The table makes trends in element properties apparent and easy to understand.The table provides important information used to balance chemical equations.