Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Role Of Franchising Tourism Essay What is a franchise according to the American heritage dictionary franchising means using one that is granted to use a business model in a certain area for a fee. Well it does not matter how the transaction or agreements are done whether it includes license, joint venture, consulting and supply agreement, and dealership when these terms are included in the contract, its a franchise (Grueneberg Solish, 2010). Legally franchising is viewed as contractual arrangement between the two legally independent parties where the franchisee pays the franchisor for the right to sell the franchisors product or the right to use his trademarks in a given location for a specified time period (FrancineÃ Lafontaine KathrynÃ L.Ã Shaw, 1999). As franchising sector is growing at rapid pace franchisor should look for expansion in international market as the home market specifically developed countries like us Canada, Europe is becoming saturated. It is vital import for a firm to have a strategic pla n to successfully establish in global economy (Richard John, 2004). The global franchising prospect seems great as said by Hoffman and Preble (1993) after their global survey of global franchise association around the world. The survey came out true as according to the United States census bureau revels that in US total franchise business accounted for 1.3 trillion and total work force of 59 million the report also showed that Limited-service restaurants, sometimes called fast food restaurants, had the highest number of franchise establishments with paid employees (124,898), followed by gas stations with convenience stores (33,991), and full-service restaurants (30,130). Thus the data revels franchise in hospitality industry is observing massive growth (U.S.CensusBureau, 2010). The massive upward growth in information and technology and simple long distance travel has made the world a small and well interconnected. Organizations should and are taking advantage of these developments and trends to pursue a global expansion. As the global market around the world are opening up and the market in developed countries are at the point of saturation companies are trying to tap into these newly opened markets for example China with one quarter of world population and high number of mid income group is considered as most under-retailed country in the world (Richard John, 2004). The concept of franchise is flexible and basically suits service sector. Given that franchise relation are influenced to an extent to which the system can be transfer and sustain in local market in terms of product acceptance, local support and service (John, 1999). Thus due to consistent economic importance of franchise we can find lots of research and literature to help us understand the concept. Franchising is a major expansion strategy for hospitality firms into a global market, especially hotels and restaurants to name a few Marriotts, Hyatt, Hilton Accor, IHG, McDonalds, KFC are a very few examples. In global markets franchising add value to the chain by enhancing and understanding the local values culture and customs. Franchising is one of the two main types of operations of which the other one owning. Franchising provides restaurants and hotels with stable franchising revenue through royalties and fees regularly according to the agreement and the time frame of the period (Koh, Lee, Boo, 2009). Unlike most other service sectors, the hotel industry is generally capital-intensive and its logistics and supply chain can be as complex and difficult to manage as those in manufacturing operations. Thus for hospitality related organization, this can be a huge complication to an equity-based expansion model in various markets, particularly in the international market. Thus, it r aises the issue of the importance of the internationalization process through franchising as a non-equity-based expansion strategy(Alon, Ni, Wang, 2012). But as a matter of fact franchising in international market delivers a scope for rapid expansion and global presence and hotels do have potential to overcome the hurdles like cultural, linguistic, technical, legal, and employment problems commonly associated with franchising internationally. Hotel industry in particular is different among another service franchisee as it requires big financial investment to establish facilities to start the business. To give a rough idea the total investment required by Choice Hotels International ranges from $2.3 to 14.6 million, InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) $2-20 million, Motel 6, $1.9-2.3 million, and Hilton 53.4-90.1 million due to such huge capital requirement makes acquiring and setup a franchise hotel a complex process (Alon et al., 2012). Franchising in Australia originated in a significant way in the early 1970s under the influence of the franchised US fast food systems KFC, Pizza Hut, McDonalds which commenced operations here at the time. Increased intensity in business competition during the 1970s and early 1980s resulted in the failure of many small and medium sized businesses and encouraged growth in franchising. Franchising continued to grow at an accelerated rate during the 1980s. This was attributed to an increase in interest from the financial and public sectors (Frazer, 2000). Over the last two decades franchising in Australia saw a rapid growth and has developed into a highly significant and dynamic business activity The Australian franchise sector with 71000 units and 1,100 business format contributes AUD $ 61 billion to Australian economy in year 2007 thus these sector is of vital important top Australian economy (Scott, Lorelle, Jeff, 2010). Comparing the franchising sector in Australia and New Zealand is not new for years there has been a friendly rival among the two countries for title of most franchised country in the world. When the survey carried out New Zealand was more franchised than Australia with 450 franchise system and around 24000 franchise system which was 17% higher than Australia on per individual basis (Lord, 2011). Franchising in New Zealand is not taken seriously enough compared to other business due to lack of legislation and treating franchise as just a business deal. The franchise sector is substantially larger than many people realize, says Graham Billings, GM of the Franchise Association of New Zealand (FANZ). Current estimates suggest turnover of between $15 billion and $20 billion, representing between eight percent and ten percent of GDP (Moore, 2009). Taking into consideration the various hotel franchises across New Zealand and Australia gives a clear picture about the franchise investments in the market. Australia has the following well Known International hotel franchise: Swissotel * Hilton Accor * Radisson Four Seasons * Best western Hotel Sheraton * Marriott IHG * Shangri- La Hyatt * Starwoods * Choice hotels (expedia.com, 2012). These are the some of the many brands which have presence in Australian market when compared to the brands present in New Zealand which are: *IHG *Accor *Marriot *Hilton (expedia.com, 2012). Thus when compared the hotel franchise sector in both the countries Australia definitely has much mature market for franchising then New Zealand as many big hotel organization are yet to tap the New Zealand market like Hyatt, four-season, Shangri-La, Starwoods. To get a better picture of comparison between role of franchising in hotel industry in Australia and New Zealand lets compare two cities in both the countries. Instead of comparing between the cities like Sydney and Auckland will not give fair information as Sydney is far bigger Metro than Auckland. Hence we will compare the role of franchising between Auckland and Brisbane as they are equal in many aspects and also they are known as sister cities. With parks and botany gardens and population, urban area and economy almost similar to each other helps to compare the role of franchising easier and comparable to each other. Thus when searching for hotels on www.expeidia.com for hotels in Brisbane there are 145 hotels listed on web site the result for hotels in Auckland are 149, the search result shows the hospitality sector are very similar in both the cities. But when we see the ratio of number of five star category hotels the difference is more than double as Auckland has around 20 five star hotels as compared Brisbane has only 7. After comparing the brands owned by franchise as mentioned above the number shows a slight difference of Auckland having more number(9) of franchised hotels as compared to Brisbane(7). Hence if we consider the various factors like Number of visitors, density of the hospitality market and economy franchise sector in New Zealand is much denser and bigger than compared to Australia. This shows despite size and regulatory environment franchising has much in common on both the sides. Also when consider the basic hospitality franchising and various local franchised restaurants franchising in New Zealand has much denser network of franchising. It also concludes that the franchising process is market-sensitive and as a result market characteristics play an important role in affecting franchising operations. These factors may include, among others, the market segment, the degree of control, either by the hotel industry sector or by government policy, the risks and costs of entry, and similarities of cultural norms and business. In addition, other situational factors which that affect how hotel franchising is carried out in a market such as Australia and New Zealand which ar e mature and stable in both the countries, the level of technology infrastructure development in the market, and the overall economic and financial conditions in the financial market of Australia and New Zealand (Alon et al., 2012).
Marketing Performance Metrics: Coca-cola Marketing Performance Metrics Abstract The purpose of the study was to investigate the marketing performance metrics with a specific reference to Coca Cola Company and Net Marketing Contribution over the Life Cycle. The study will assist many companies in formulating strategies to be used as benchmark or the strategies to improve NMC. Marketing Performance Metrics Introduction Measuring marketing performance is an external activity that helps to understand the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perception and the competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s position in the industry. Many organizations sets different tools to use as benchmarks so as to identify the staffsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance and the rate of income. ROA and ROI are the main used financial measures to measure the internal financial statues. Part 1: Discuss Three Measures of Marketing Performance Marketing metrics are the numeric data that allows the marketers to analysis their performance against the organizational objectives. The metrics help to take corrective measures in case there is a deviation between the targeted plans and the achieved performance of staffs (Neely, 2001). They have various measurement elements that includes number of produced products, net sales billed, design registrations and a research on the brands to determine to determine the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness. Metrics makes it easy for marketers to justify their budget that is based on sales returns. Three Measures of Marketing Performance The activity-based metrics among the popular metrics used in analyzing performance. It involves statistical calculating and reporting. The main type of activity-based metrics includes tracking website visitors, downloads and attendees at the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s events. This approach rarely link the marketing operations to the business outcomes. Instead, the business results like the customer value, market share and adoption of a new product provides an improved correlation. The main focus of MPM is to measure aggregated efficiency and effectiveness of the marketing firm. These specific metrics have some categories that includes the marketing effect on the preference shares, the average order quantity, the rate of customer acquisition, the growth of consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s buying rate, business share, loyalty and net advocacy, margin, growth rate compared to market competition and the total customer engagement. MPM is also used to determine the rate at which operational efficiency and the outside performance. If Coca Cola Company decides to manage its marketing activities it uses the operations performance metrics. The firm will hire extra personnel to work as marketing finance directors and marketing operations director. Basically the marketing team will collect data about program-to-people ratios, cost-sales, awareness-to- demand rate and the rate of conversation. This metrics primarily provides the firm with different ways of rationalizing the marketing investments but this strategy fails to correlate marketing to business performance and strategy. The approach helps marketers to find out how the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s resources are utilized. The external performance are aligned with the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s outcome and helps to determine the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s value to its customers and the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in relation to its competitors (Neely, 2007). If Coca Cola Company wants to determine the key performance indicator (KPI), top-down approach is the best approach to use. The first step in this approach includes making decisions that defines the scope. To come up with KPI and metrics, the marketers predicts on the likely results they are trying to influence. Asking opposite questions follows (Shaw et al, 1997), the answers help to determine the relationship between the questions and the outcome. The data that is required to answer the question is then determined. Marketers then searches for this data and determines the corrective measures to be taken. The measures undertaken aims at making it possible to achieve the goals. The organization needs to continuously monitor and analyze its marketing performance metrics. This gives the organization intelligence in competition, have a chance to assess their market weaknesses and strengths and come up with a calculated budgetary opinions through the marketing mix. This will give the organization competitive advantages over its competitors. The profits of the firm will also increase. The Major brands use return on marketing investment (ROMI), return on marketing objectives (ROMO) and the marketing return on investment (ROI) to prioritize and distribute their marketing investments. They help them to decide on the most profitable portfolio. A firm needs to analyze the ROMI, ROMO and ROI of a project for more than a year. This will protect the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s investigations. The method selected in monitoring the marketing process must be easy and cheap to implement. Training should be carried out to train the staffs on the best benchmark and how it is used. Staffs should take part in determining the best benchmark to use. This brings a sense of belonging and appreciation of the worker to the company and management when you nvolve them in management roles. Part 1: Analyze Metrics Used to Evaluate the Measures The above measures can be measured using the following metrics (Leroy, 2011): Correct quantity, measuring the weight, counting the units and weighing the contents are the main used types of measurement. Supplying customers with the right quality will strengthen the level of trust with your customers hence making it easy to retain them. An independent team is set aside in an organization to measure the products quantity and to make sure the customer gets what they specify in terms of size. Elasticity to respond to unanticipated demands, this refers to the ability of a firm to adjust so as to meet the current demand. A metric will be used to measure the degree of change, this makes it easy to identify the level at which the firm is flexible. Quality level, TQM is a tool to measure quality. The metrics will make sure the level of a productÃ¢â¬â¢s level is standardized. Controlling quality can also be done by the state authority to ensure a firm offers its customers with quality products. Firms that offer less standardized products are fined for the same. The total quality management is employed to control the quality of a good or service. The staffs who produce quality products are rewarded with gifts and appraisals. The staffs whose products are below the standard are trained and encouraged to produce quality products. Existence of accreditation or other certification, after completion of a training a firm is issued with a certificate to show its participation. The certificates act as a measure of qualification and experience attained. Customers prefer to contract a firm that has experience and is highly rated in the industry. On-time delivery can be used to measure how a firm values its customers. If a firm supplies its products on time this shows the supply chain is well managed. In a case of failed or late delivery, less care is taken on the customer and the likeliness to loss the customer is high. Part 1: Case Study that Exemplifies Best Practices of each Measure. Coca-Cola Company is an example of a company that demonstrates the best practices of the above measures. According to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website they put their customers to be the king and aims at providing the best so as to retain the customers and to attract new customers. Coca-Cola Company has an independent department that deals with quality control. The unit makes sure quality is maintained through the supply chain from when raw materials are obtained from the supplier to when they are delivered to the customer. The team tests the product at each level of manufacturing to make sure the right contents and composition are used. The team is also involved in ensuring quality services are offered to the customers. They establishes feedback programs as a way to allow the customers to get back to them. The company parks its drinks in containers of different sizes. A team is established in the company to make sure only the correct quantity is supplied to the users. The team weighs at random the already packed products and in case of a deviation the whole pack is weighed and repacking is done. Customers have trust in Coca-Cola because there products are correctively packed. Elasticity to respond to unanticipated demands, the company produces its products in great volumes. The products are then stored in its outletÃ¢â¬â¢s warehouse. If the demand is low the supply is kept low but if the demand changes and more of their products are demanded the firm supplies more. They have special facilities to store their products for a long period. The firm is certified and customers are confident in its products. It has been in the market for a long time hence gathering more experience on the type of products to produce. The company has learnt different ways of surviving in the market and how to win more customers. They now provide different types of soft drinks. Coca-Cola Company has set outlets all over the world. This makes it easy to meet the buyerÃ¢â¬â¢s order on time with no dely. Transportation of the product from their warehouse to your premises is very fast. The drinks will be transported in crates or packed in cartons to avoid breakages and maintain a deliverable state. Part 2: Short-Run Marketing Strategy Short-run marketing strategy refers to a duration of time which only few factors can be changed as there is no enough time for changing the other variables in marketing strategies. Marketing Strategy is a detailed and specific tactics that are established and designed to be used over a period of time depending on the range of the plan (Neely, 2001). Advertising and media relations strategies used by the Coca Cola Company have an effect on the net marketing contribution both in short-term and in long-term. In short-term, once the firm has decided to increase its efforts in advertisements commercial so that it reaches many people. There will be an increase in the product awareness and hence increase in the sales level. Once the sales are high the NMC will be high. In case the public fails to respond in a positive manner the firm will suffer loss as the advertisement costs will be very high compared to the income from the goods sold (Tanzania Society, 1966). In short-term a lot of advertisement will be profitable to the firm as the sales will be high. The media relation refers to how a firm uses the media including the social media to market its products. In short-run using the media will be expensive as it needs time to gain publicity. This in return will lead to a fall in NMC. Many large beverage companies like Coca Cola were late in entering the product-markets of bottled water, fruit drinks, sports drinks, iced coffee, and energy drinks due to SHORT-TERM VISION. Part2: Analyze Net Marketing Contribution in the Introductory Stage During the product introductory phase the net marketing contribution is negative as no profits are made from selling the product. The income obtained is used to cover the high costs of advertisement and promotional costs incurred. The firm incurs loss (Louw, 2012). With proper advertisement the product survives this stage and the NMC start to raise as the product has gained customers. The advertisement costs are now low. Part2: Analyze Net Marketing Contribution in the Late Growth Stage As the product moves through its lifecycle, NMC will reach the break-even point, then grow, to peak, flattens and then starts to decline due to decrease in the market demand. At the end-growth stage the NMC starts to flatten as the product is now in the market and has gained its customers. When a new substitute product is introduced into the market, many customers will shift their preference. This will lead to decrease in demand of the product causing NMC to start falling. If the firm fails to add flavors to the product it might die and overtaken by the new product (Northern Marianas College.). The graph below shows the movement of the NMC along a product lifecycle. Conclusion In conclusion we can summarize the above by saying that a firm must choose the most profitable portfolio to invest. Investment affects both the profitability and the NMC of a firm. The firm needs to understand the product cycle so that it determines the type of advertisement to use. References Neely, A. (2001). Business performance measurement: Theory and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Ã Ã Top of Form Neely, A. D. (2007). Business performance measurement: Unifying theories and integrating practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bottom of Form Shaw, R., Mazur, L., FT Retail Consumer Publishing. (1997). Marketing accountability: Improving business performance. London: FT Retail Consumer Publishing Tanzania Society. (1966). Tanzania notes and records. Dar es Salaam: Tanzania Society. Louw, A. (2012). Ambush marketing and the mega-event monopoly: How laws are abused to protect commercial rights to major sporting events. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press. Northern Marianas College. (n.d.). Performance report on strategic master plan implementation and assessment of institutional effectiveness. Saipan, MP: Northern Marianas College, Office of Institutional Effectiveness. Leroy, G. (2011). Designing user studies in informatics. London: Springer. Books.google.com,. (2015). isbn:1607522330 Google Search. Retrieved 8 January 2015, from https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1607522330 Electricity and Transportation: Decreasing Energy Consumption Electricity and Transportation: Decreasing Energy Consumption Consider one of these two sectors: electricity or transportation. What policies do you suggest for the sector to decrease energy consumption? What is the rebound effect associated with each of the suggested policies? How would you quantify these rebound effects so that you are certain that the suggested policy results in a net benefit? How do you evaluate the effectiveness of your suggested policy with respect to the generated rebound effect? What policies do you suggest for the sector to decrease energy consumption? In 2008, transportation accounted for 28% of the energy consumption and 33% of the CO2 emission, but a much larger 71% of the consumption of liquid fuels in the US . To reduce the magnitude of energy consumption from the transportation sector and help prevent its bad effect on the environment, a proper policy must be put in place. US Congress specifies that CAFE standards must be set at the Ã¢â¬Å"maximum feasible level given consideration for technological feasibility, economic practicality, effect of other standards on fuel economy, and need of the nation toconserveenergy . In this term paper, I would suggest combination of CAFE standards combined with carbon tax on fuel price. What is the rebound effect associated with each of the suggested policies? One advantage of CAFE standards over fuel is that the standards provide a quantitative target whose effects on energy consumption can be reasonably well predicted . However, the standard has rebound effect. The rebound effect refers to the social and behavioral responses to the introduction of more energy efficiency technologies and processes by which there is a corresponding increase in energy service demands. In general, rebound is thought of as a ratio of the lost energy savings as it might compare to the total expected savings from efficiency. A comprehensive measure of rebound includes both direct and indirect effects which can occur at both the micro level (within households, businesses and organizations) and at the macro level (economy-wide effects). Direct rebound effects are those that result from an increase in the use of a device that is deemed more energy efficient. Cars provide the best examples. When a more efficient car results in an increase in vehicle miles traveled, the lost energy savings are considered to be direct rebound effects. Indirect rebound effects are those that have less direct causal chains and result from increases in consumerism (acquisitiveness) by buying new vehicle, increased vehicle production, and increased air pollution . How would you quantify these rebound effects so that you are certain that the suggested policy results in a net benefit? Some studies in macro and micro economic have shown that rebound effect value range is between 0% and 100% with formulation expressed below. Value of rebound effect 0% means that the expected savings were achieved through reduced consumption, whilst 100% means that no energy savings were realized and energy efficiency program was failed. The backfire effect happen when consumption has been increased more than extent or in other word rebound effect more than 100%. It is also possible to have a negative RE, such that the energy savings are greater than originally anticipated, for behavioral or technical reasons, or both . Based on the above formula, the rebound effect measurements can be made Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹directly and indirectly. Direct measurement is based on a survey of how big the success rate of the CAFE program. One study by Sorrel in 2009, the rebound effect estimation is between 10% and 30%. Meanwhile other study by Greening, Greene and Difiglio in 2010 show rebound effect for transportation below 10%. Geller and Attali study in 2005 also support this number as shown in Table 1 . CAFÃâ° standards and fuel tax could reduce 10%-30% value range when the fuel price is taxed according to released carbon emissions. This is equal to externalities generated by fossil fuel. High fuel price with tax could suppress the rebound effect due to need of having energy efficient car. In addition, changes in behavior based on strong motivation to reduce energy consumption become appropriate step anticipating rebound effect . For indirect estimation, the rebound effect with energy price elasticity is defined as the change in demand according to the decrease in price. To calculate elasticity, transportation energy use, price and income of buyer are required. It is important to know that there is limitation of the calculation since it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t consider the capital outlay of the technology that would lower rebound effect . Research that estimates indirect and economy-wide effects is limited. An often cited source of economy-wide rebound analysis is the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Using NEMS, a scenario of accelerated technology whereby the national energy intensity is 6.5 percent lower than in the base case, produces a total energy demand that is 5 percent less (Greening 2000, citing Kydes 1997). This suggests that improved energy efficiency (part of the accelerated technology assumption) leads to an economy-wide reb ound in the order of 25 percent . Many researchers suggested that RE on CAFÃâ° standard should be balanced with other policy. The other policy should account many factors affecting RE value and incorporate RE value into the target. The RE is not always detrimental. RE could stimulate economic growth in developing countries rather than developed ones. The rebound effect can be reduced when the CAFE standards coupled with carbon tax policy, where the price of fuel is taxed according to the carbon emissions released . This is equivalent to externalities generated by fossil fuel. The key of rebound effect is the behavior of driver tends to driver more because of fuel saving car. The carbon tax would increase the price and make consumers drive less . It is important to realize that all taxes can be invested to public transportation. Energy efficiency get from each car and energy efficiency resulted from mass transit can be benefit to reduce overall consumption. At the same time, public transportation will reduce private vehicles. How do you evaluate the effectiveness of your suggested policy with respect to the generated rebound effect? The rebound effect can be evaluated based on the percentage of the success rate of the policy. Direct rebound effect could be seen directly from the increased mile travelled or increased sales of the vehicles. Indirect rebound effect or wide economy effect can be seen from the increase in the gross domestic product (GDP) and an increase in private income in the transportation sector. Moreover, the success of this policy can be observed by comparing the desired CO2 reduction with the actual result during the policy implementation period. If there is a difference of more than the desired decrease, it means that the rebound effect takes place . The evaluation of the rebound effect also works indirectly as a result of the additional energy demand for the energy efficient equipment or services. For example; the energy cost saving may be used by the producers to increase the output, thereby increasing consumption of the capital, labor and materials, all of which require energy. Another example is that energy efficiency and reduction in energy costs may disproportionately reduce the cost of energy-intensive goods and services, encouraging consumers to disproportionately increase their demand for such products and services . The combination between the fuel standard and the Carbon tax with the encouragement of public transportation will anticipate the rebound effect and specifically reduce the energy consumption in transportation. In addition, the policy will reduce the GHG emission. The small rebound effect could not reduce the order of magnitude from the reduced energy consumption that give more benefit compared with the rebound itself. References http://www.rff.org/Documents/Features/NEPI/RFF-BCK-Small-AutoPolicies.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_Average_Fuel_Economy http://www.aceee.org/files/proceedings/2010/data/papers/2142.pdf http://www.erc.uct.ac.za/Research/publications/10-Davis_Rebound_effect.pdf http://eng.sut.ac.th/transportenergy/data/paper4web/Energy%20policy%20in%20transport%20and%20transport%20policy.pdf http://policyintegrity.org/files/publications/The_Rebound_Effect.pdf http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421509005187 http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07921.pdf http://www.unternehmenssteuertag.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Redaktion/[emailprotected]/Projektpartner_Ergebnisse/macroeconomicRebound.pdf http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/conf_proceedings/2009/RAND_CF256.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_tax http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vehicle_miles_traveled_tax http://aida.econ.yale.edu/~nordhaus/homepage/documents/small_dender_rebound.pdf Appendix
Saturday, July 20, 2019
"He who wishes to secure the good of others, has already secured his own." - Confucius Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Christmas in October Program is an annual event I participated in that helps someone who is less fortunate by fixing up their home. It is a two-day event where exterior and interior work is done on a home. The program requires a company to sponsor the project, and volunteers to do the actual work. It is called Christmas in October because it takes place in October, but feels like Christmas because of its memorable effect. Participating in the Christmas in October Program was the most meaningful work I've done because of its lasting effect on me. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Christmas in October was very meaningful to me because it changed my feelings about volunteering. Before I participated in the program, I didn...
Friday, July 19, 2019
The New Land of New Ideas Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The 18th century Americans turned their backs on the old ideas of the Puritans. The Puritans believed in the population acting within the religious ways of the times. The 18th century population turned their lifestyles to a lifestyle of self interest. This lifestyle was dedicated to the goal of obtaining wealth and prestige among the community. DeCrevecouer writes: He is arrived on a new continent; a modern society offers itself to his contemptation, different from what he had hitherto seen. It is not composed, as in Europe, of great lords who possess every thing and of a herd of people who have nothing. Here are no aristocratical families, no courts, no kings, no bishops, no ecclesiastical dominion, no invisible power giving to a few a very visible one; no great manufacturers employing thousands, no great refinements of luxury. The rich and the poor are not so far removed from each other as they are in Europe. In the old mother land, one could work all day and still not produce very much. However, in the new land there was more opportunity for entrepreneurship. This led to a increase in the self-interest principle and a decrease in the principles of religion. In Old England, it was believed that the few that had the wealth were blessed. Even the King was viewed as the Lord's represantive on Earth. In the new land one had to work to gain faith. Wealth that the individual created was viewed as being faithful to the Lord. The new America gives birth to a true entrepreneurship among the races, if they are going to have anything at all they are going to have to work for it. DeCrevecouer explains this: Men are like plants; the goodness and flavour of the fruit proceeds from the peculiar soil and exposition in which they grow. We are nothing but what we derive from the air we breathe, the climate we inhabit, the government we obey, the system of religion we profess, and the nature of our employment This was not the land where wealth would be left to you in a will, this was the
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Puritanistic Elements in The Scarlet LetterÃ Ã Puritanism was the religion practiced by the people of colonial Boston, the setting for HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s The Scarlet Letter.Ã It is because of the beliefs of the Puritan religion that Hester Prynne, the main character in The Scarlet Letter, is ostracized from the community.Ã Puritan ideals are often brought up in the book.Ã Although Hawthorne never outrightly states his position on Puritanism, it seems clear that he does approve of the religion. The story begins with Hester in jail for adultery.Ã She is presented as a strong womanÃ¢â¬âshe holds her head high and does not try to cover up the letter.Ã She stands up to her punishment, and neither the spectators nor her seem to suggest that she is being treated unfairly.Ã It seems strange that everyone would agree upon HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s sentence, since everybody rarely agrees on anything.Ã Because Hawthorne never speaks directly to the reader about his own opinions, it must be inferred from the characters what he thinks.Ã Thus, since HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s punishment is condoned by everyone, it must be assumed t...
Some people think that school cafeterias should be required to provide low-fat and/or vegetarian lunch options to accommodate the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s nutritional guidelines, but all students do not eat the same. In my essay about cafeteria food, I will explain what students want in their food. I will also share the likes and dislikes in the food and what we can do to improve it. Cold pizza, undercooked hamburgers and brown lettuce sounds nasty. Many students from different states and districts have to deal with that every day at their schools. The food from the cafeterias used to be good, with a sweet flavor, but in the last few years the food had taken a different flavor, a flavor that cannot be tolerated by the students. The students need a better quality in their food, donÃ¢â¬â¢t they? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time for a change, a change to food, so students can be satisfied while their eating, a change to food that can be really worth it. As a matter of fact, we students pay money to the district every year and this is what we get? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time for a change. Everybody knows that eating healthy was from the past. However, now students and not necessarily just students eat fast food like McDonalds or Taco Bell. Now everybody does, which can be a good and a bad thing. The changes of the foodÃ¢â¬â¢s taste has made many students to not eat at school, or even made students to bring lunch, and this as a matter of fact causes the school to lose money. In all actuality is the loss of money causing the school to give students poorly made food? If the schools would serve students food from places like Pizza Hut and Subway I can guarantee that most or all students would eat at the cafeterias and it would benefit to both school and students. These types of foods would be so great to have in schools, but unfortunately the district and the governments have taken action and unfairly, they have set down laws that prohibit these foods in the schools. They have settled these laws because they want us as students to eat healthy, but if they want to keep us healthy, why are they giving us food with a bad and nasty taste? Also, with these laws they keep students like me away from eating too much Ã¢â¬Å"junkÃ¢â¬ food because they can cause obesity. But do they keep on giving us food that is not even worth the amount of money our parents give to the government every year? If they were the ones who eat all of the nasty food given by the cafeteria they would of get tired of eating cold pizza and uncooked hamburgers with brown lettuce just like we the students do. In conclusion, we all understand what the overnment and the school system is trying to do with this healthy eating program. They want to promote healthy eating habits in an effort to prevent obesity. Although nutrition is important, students feel that there is a better way to have healthy food without ruining the taste. Therefore, in an effort to keep students healthy and leave with their stomachs satisfied we should all come together to realize that we are the ones that have to make it through the school day with the food.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Despite of addition in bothday and private health fear sector step forwardgo, the go for of health sustenance go in India has remained hapless. Issues related to enate and infant health be of concern.1 For the health and well-being of a kid, every(prenominal) touch uncorrupted as sign and tender wellbeing, prenatal and postpartum direction of fe male p bent is necessary.India s procreative and nestling health create by mental act2-Sing high paternal and shaver deceases, authorities of India has ever aimed at loose toing these issues by means of concrete wellness plans. India was the initiatory republic to establish the national sign planning political platform. It was subsequently integ reckon into mob public assistance programme.The International league on Population information ( ICPD ) , 1994 and the 4th World Conference on Women, 1995 held at Beijing, China emphasized on sex equity and sustainable development. These conferences suggested t he reproductive wellness plans to look after gender issues piece of tail the wellness jobs, great(p) females s wellness demands throughout their life span and gain forces s duty to esteem bountiful females s generative rights. ICPD helped India to explicate an integ targetd programme which could travel beyond the ho single-valued functionh honest-to-god planning and emphasis on gender equity. The generative and child wellness programme in India was so started in 1997.The second stage of this programme came in legal action along with National Rural Health Mission in 2005, which emphasized on the betterment of approachability and accounting entry of the health vexation services by the deal particularly vainglorious females, kids and weaker components of the society. The RCH programme covers the generative demands of adult females and work forces at each phases of life.The generative and child wellness programme of India is establish on the basic constituents such(prenom inal) as Child wellness ( child endurance and kid development ) and skillful maternity ( including safe direction of unclaimed gestation and abortion ) , Adolescent wellness ( gender development, adolescence instruction and vocational constituent ) , effectual ho aimhold planning ( Ensuring cognizant pick, Counseling, gender e look and greater male engagement ) , Prevention, sensing and direction of Reproductive Tract Infections, Sexu absolutelyy Transmitted Infections, human immunodeficiency virus/ AIDS and malignant neoplastic ailment of the generative system, Reproductive wellness financial aid of aged people.The chief focal destine of the RCH programme is to cut down maternal(p) and sister deathrate and Entire impressiveness Rate. The programme is operated all over the state through primary, secondary and third humanity health care system. Decentralized coming is the cardinal constituent of this programme.1.1.2 Use of RCH services-Use of health care services stooge b e assessed by patient s every bit good as wellness professional s position. The patient s position can be essential based on the services account by the patient or the feature of services felt by the patient, or objective based on the services offered by the health care introduction to the patient. The wellness professional may tick towards the intake of services by frugal facet such as the depend of patients, figure of visits and so forth3The utilise of RCH services can be assessed by the consumption of all its constituents. Maternal Mortality and morbidity, Infant deathrate and kid deathrate, and entire birth rate rate are the basic indexs of handiness, economic consumption and effectuality of MCH services. Status of these indexs weighs the position of health care services in the country.5Assorted factors are responsible for the theatrical role of RCH services, for illustration, degrees of instruction, socio-economic position, environmental factors such as entree to t he wellness Centre, health care substructure etc. Study of use of these services, hence requires consideration of all these determiners of the health care utilization.41.2 Global scenario-The Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs ) set up by WHO for MMR is 109, for IMR is 28 and for Under-5 deathrate rate is 42 by the terminal of twelvemonth 2015. High dispute in these indexs in demonstrable and develop states shows the take issueence in handiness and use of RCH services in developed and maturation countries.61.2.1 MCH in developed countries- In developed states such as cardinal and occidental Europe, Australia etc, the use of preventative services is really high among females than males. The surveies done in early on 1970ss have helped the developed states to better the wellness service use. The of import factors indentified were mean appeal per visit, wellness insurance coverage, age, instruction etc. This resulted in lower maternal mortality rates, e.g. 5 in Sweden 3 in De n correct, Norway and Israel ( Population Action International, 1995 ) .In unify States it is found that black adult females mold well less use of wellness services than white opposite numbers, collectable to socio-cultural factors. The addition in migratory macrocosm and their certain(prenominal) constructs lead to non-utilization of services in Sweden.7,8The World Health Organization has place Cuba as an illustration of good wellness at low cost achieved through policies that address the determiners of wellness and are based on just entree, catholicity and political control. They have focused on leash major initiatives-1 ) primary attention through polyclinics, 2 ) comprehensive attack at the community degree and 3 ) feedback from community.91.2.2. MCH in developing countries- In recent old ages, developing states are influenced by findings in developed states, for measuring the quality of their wellness attention. Results have received particular underline as a step o f quality. measuring stick results is utile as an index of the effectuality of unalike intercessions and as portion of a monitoring system directed to bettering quality of attention every bit good as observing its impairment.In Indonesia usage of an unskilled birth attender and free birth at place are most common among the poorest and least meliorate adult females. The kids of these adult females have the highest impale of infant mortality. The infant mortality rate differs greatly by part of entree to wellness services. In Ethiopia, socio demographic features of adult females, cultural context, handiness, consumer satisfaction influenced wellness service use.1.3 Local scenario-The national agrarian wellness mission 2005 set up certain ends to better the wellness service use by people shacking in rural countries, adult females, kids and the hapless in India. The mark for MMR is 100, IMR 30 and TFR 2.1 by the terminal of 2012.10The set up Maternal Mortality Rate of India is 21 2. Infant mortality rate has declined to 49, while Under-5 mortality rate is still 64. Entire birthrate rate of the state is 2.6, which is higher in rural country i.e. 2.9 as compared to urban country which is 2.0.11Harmonizing to NFHS-3 information, only when 44 share adult females use the prenatal attention in the first trimester of gestation, and merely 52 percent adult females give 3-4 visits to wellness Centre enemy ANC services during the entire gestation period. exclusively 47 percent births are attended by wellness forces including physician, ANM, nurse, accoucheuse or lady wellness visitant. Merely 37 percent adult females receive post-natal attention within twain yearss of bringing which is supposed to be a critical period. Use of these services is various in rural and urban country.though coverage of ICDS is high in the state, merely 28percent kids receive the services provided through ICDS. Merely 44 per centum kids are to the full inoculate while 5 per centum kid s are non disposed any inoculation. Percentage of kids which are interpreted to healthcare Centre for the Acute respiratory Infections ( ARI ) , fever and diarrhea scopes from 60-69 in different provinces of the state.Most common ground for non utilizing public wellness installations is hapless quality of service, followed by non-availability of the health care installation nearby.12The use of RCH services differs in different provinces of India. personality and extent of the relationship between maternal instruction and use of MCH services differ between the North and South of India and that this remainder is mostly determined by the north-south derived functions in the general socio-economic and cultural environment in which adult females live.1.4 Rationale of the study-The Maternal, baby and under-5 kids mortality rates have shown important declension from the beginning of 2nd stage of RCH programme, which reflect the positive alteration in handiness and use of RCH services. But as compared to the MDG ends every bit good as NRHM ends for these indexs, in that location is farther demand to work on the betterment of use of these services.Kolhapur is the southernmost grime in Maharashtra province. It is divided in 12 talukas and five sub-divisions for administrative intents. The entire creation of the ground is 35,23,165 out of which around 24,72,809 community resides in rural area.13The organisation of RCH programme in Kolhapur territory consists of a district Hospital, two sub-district infirmaries, 18 rural infirmaries ( RH ) , 73 Primary wellness Centres ( PHCs ) and 413 sub-centres.14Radhanagari sub-division of Kolhapur territory covers 4 rural infirmaries, 13 PHCs and 52 sub-centres. The use of RCH services in the wellness Centres based in Radhanagari sub-division is low, while on that point is overburden on the territory infirmary for these services.Therefore, on recommendations of Sub-divisional Office, Radhanagari and sing all the factors im pacting the use of RCH services, the survey is planned to analyse the use form of RCH services, grounds for non-utilization of these services at different degrees i.e. RH and PHC and besides to name the possible steps to better the use of services in the Radhanagari sub-division of Kolhapur territory, Maharashtra.1.5 Aims of the study-To find the use of RCH services in Radhanagari sub-division of Kolhapur territory.To happen out the grounds for utilization/non-utilization of these services.